During 2020, Brazil has emerged as one of the worst-hit countries by the Coronavirus pandemic. In order to understand the impact of the COVID-19 this comprehensive volume of more than 120 research-based articles, navigates the origin, spread, response and containment of the COVID-19 virus by the Brazilian government. This excellent volume of work is intended to serve as a reference book for researchers with an interest in the Brazilian COVID-19 crisis. This work begins by examining how the virus was initially brought into Brazil by the wealthy elite, and how the virus predominantly affected the country’s poor, thus exposing structural inequalities such as class, race and ethnicity. Furthermore, this collection highlights the multiple challenges faced by the Brazilian population and public health authorities concerning arbovirus infections, including the occurrence of concurrent epidemics like the COVID-19 pandemic and strategies to mitigate the effects for high risk and vulnerable populations.